Advances in computing and information technology are changing the way people meet and communicate. People can meet, talk, and work together outside of traditional meeting and office spaces. For example, with the introduction of software designed to help people schedule meetings and facilitate decision-making or learning processes, geographic constraints are weakening and the dynamics of interpersonal communication are changing. Information technology is also dramatically affecting the way people teach and learn.
As new information technologies infiltrate workplaces, homes and classrooms, research on user acceptance of new technologies has begun to receive a lot of attention from professionals and researchers. academics. Developers and software industries are beginning to realize that lack of acceptance of technology by users can lead to loss of money and resources.
When studying the acceptance and use of technology by users, the TAM is one of the most cited models. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was developed by Davis to explain the behavior of computer use. The theoretical basis of the model was Fishbein and Ajzen’s Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is an information systems theory (System consisting of the network of all communication channels used within an organization) that models how users come to accept and use a technology. The model suggests that when users are presented with a software package, a number of factors influence their decision about how and when to use it, in particular:
Perceived Utility (PU): Fred Davis defined it as “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would improve their job performance.”
Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU) Davis defined this as “the degree to which a person believes that the use of a particular system would be effortless” (Davis, 1989).
The goal of TAM is “to provide a general explanation of the determinants of computer acceptance, capable of explaining user behavior across a wide range of end-user computing technologies and user populations, while being parsimonious and theoretically justified “.
According to the TAM, if a user perceives a specific technology as useful, they will believe in a positive relationship between use and performance. Since effort is a finite resource, a user is likely to accept one application when it is perceived as easier to use than another. As a consequence, educational technology with a high level of PU and PEOU is more likely to induce positive perceptions. The relationship between PU and PEOU is that PU mediates the effect of PEOU on attitude and intended use. In other words, while PU has a direct impact on attitude and use, PEOU influences attitude and use indirectly through PU.
User acceptance is defined as “the demonstrable willingness within a group of users to use information technology for the tasks for which it is designed” (Dillon & Morris). Although this definition focuses on planned and intended uses of technology, studies report that individual perceptions of information technology are likely to be influenced by objective characteristics of the technology, as well as interaction with other users. . For example, to the extent that you evaluate new technology as useful, you are likely to use it. At the same time, your perception of the system is influenced by the way the people around you evaluate and use the system.
Information technology studies continually report that user attitudes are important factors affecting the success of the system. During the last decades, many definitions of attitude have been proposed. However, all theories consider that attitude is a relationship between a person and an object (Woelfel, 1995).
In the context of information technology, it is an approach to studying attitude – the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM suggests that users form a positive attitude towards technology when they perceive that technology is useful and easy to use (Davis, 1989).
A review of academic research on the acceptance and use of SI suggests that TAM has emerged as one of the most influential models in this current of research. The TAM represents an important theoretical contribution to understanding SI use and SI acceptance behaviors. However, this model, with its original emphasis on the design of system characteristics, does not take into account the social influence on the adoption and use of new information systems.